Copyright Accademia dei Georgofili
Water essential factor for life. The liquid state of water depends on the bent shape of its molecule; the liquid state is fundamental for the vital functions into organisms. The hydrolysis is basic for the splitting of complex molecules into simpler assimilable compounds, and water is also fundamental for the thermoregulation of organisms and other vital functions. The well-being condition of the organism depends on the ratio (60/40) between intracellular and extracellular water. In plants the metabolic water is one of the three essential components for chlorophill photosynthesis. Water is also the essential substrate for the life of aquatic species. Sea currents affect the climate of large areas of our planet, creating favorable environmental conditions for the humans and many species of plants and animals; similarly rivers favor the formation of biodiversity-rich ecosystems. The origin of water is controversial, there are two main theories: one considers the origin outside the earth, while another believes that water was already present in the cosmic powders that formed our planet. The available sweet water for human activities is less than 1% of the total water. The first life forms would have appeared in the hydrothermal hyper hot springs present in the ocean depths. Many factors: climate change, increase in the human population and its unit consumption in many countries of the world cause fear of a progressive lack of available sweet water, with risk of conflicts among states, especially those crossed by the same river.